Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali

by The Advocacy Project
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Use Soap to Empower 60 Rape Survivors in Mali
Bamako 2015 - preparing soap for sale
Bamako 2015 - preparing soap for sale

We open this report with the photo of one of 645 survivors of sexual violence in Mali who have benefited from your donations to this appeal. She is seen holding two bags of shea butter soap before they were taken off to be sold a local market. Impressed by her serenity, and confidence that she had produced a professional product, we used the image to launch our appeal at the start of 2016.

Two and a half years later, we want to share some thoughts on how your donation has been used and reflect on where the program is heading. You can see some recent photos from the program below.

The challenge: The program was launched in 2013 following a brutal rebellion by Tuareg fighters and jihadists in northern Mali. The rebels imposed a reign of terror against women which included the widespread use of sexual violence and left deep psychological scars that remain to this day. Some survivors who have met with The Advocacy Project were so traumatized that they waited for three years before plucking up the courage to seek help.

The response: Our partner in Mali Sini Sanuman (“Healthy Tomorrow”) responded to the crisis by opening four centers where survivors of SGBV receive emergency support and are trained to make soap, clothes and embroidery. The photo above was taken at one of two centers in the capital Bamako. Funding has come from the foreign ministries of Germany and Liechtenstein and from you - our friends - through GlobalGiving. 645 survivors passed through the centers between 2014 and 2017.

The gamble: The training has been built around soap from the very start. This was because soap is easy to make and always in demand. (You can see the soap being produced at a Bamako center in this video.) But it was still a gamble in 2014. Sini Sanuman had no way of knowing whether traumatized women could make high-quality soap and the first few months were full of trial and error. In 2014, trainees only produced 780 bars, most of which went home with them. The idea that this would develop into a business seemed far-fetched.

GlobalGiving: The training picked up steam in 2015, when the centers produced 4,253 bars. Our friends in the US took notice and Luigi Laraia from the World Bank launched this appeal on our behalf  in early 2016. We picked it up from Luigi. Up to this point friends like you have donated $10,091. The actual amount raised has been higher because we have taken advantage of matching grants from GlobalGiving, most recently in mid-April. Our thanks to you all!

Impact: Your donations have made a huge difference.

  • Flexibility: Your donations have allowed Sini Sanuman to make quick investments without seeking permission to change the main budget. This allowed us to buy new soap molds; to build a storage shed where soap could be kept dry and clean; to introduce a system of accounting which allowed Sini Sanuman to track sales; and to brand and market the soap as Sini Savon to give it more consumer appeal.
  • Improved production: The figures speak for themselves! The centers produced 780 bars of soap in 2014; 4,253 bars in 2015; 27,528 bars in 2016; and 34,576 bars in 2017.
  • Earnings: As the quality of soap has improved, so have earnings. Trainees keep 60% of what they sell, and in 2017 they shared $5,835 (among 210 women). One of our star trainees, Maimouna, routinely made over $10 a week, which paid for half of her rent.
  • Confidence: The psychological benefits are almost as rewarding as the income because the soap is made in a group under the watchful eye of a trainer. This brings the women out of their isolation and creates deep friendships. It also throws up natural leaders who form teams and head off to a local market to sell their soap. AP has accompanied several teams and seen how they delight in selling their own product. Soap helps survivors to regain their confidence, which is what this program is all about.
  • Other beneficiaries: It is not just survivors who benefit. A group of 40 village women has made a living from producing shea butter oil (beurre de kerite) for the Bamako centers. 2,000 students have received uniforms made by the trainees. If we include family members and women who have attended educational outreach sessions, this program has touched the lives of over 55,000 vulnerable Malians.

Economic reintegration: The soap project has exceeded expectations but we are still left with one key question – how can trainees continue to make soap once training ends? Your donations have helped us to come up with an answer. In 2017 Sini Sanuman invested $600 in a women’s cooperative (Moussou Kalanso) that makes soap. In return, the cooperative members promised to employ former trainees from the program. This produced a win-win. The cooperative (which has over 30 members) sold 35% more soap in 2017 than the previous year, and four former Sini Sanuman trainees shared 768,000 CFA ($1,536) – far more than they had earned during training.

Looking ahead: What can we learn from the last four years and how can we move forward? It seems clear that soap can help traumatized women to re-enter society and that small investments can produce a big impact. But much still remains to be done. The conflict in northern Mali is spreading and that will probably mean more violence against women. In spite of Sini Sanuman's success, funding is difficult. Our German grant came to an end in 2017 and the two Bamako centers still need funds.

In other words, this is the time to redouble our efforts on behalf of this innovative and important program. That will include maintaining this appeal on GlobalGiving. We hope you will remain involved.

One thing is certain. Every new dollar with help to change a life. We think, for example, of Mariama K, who lost her family in the north and was so distraught when she arrived at Sini Sanuman that she could not bear to be alone. After six months of leading a soap team (l’equipe Mariama) and out-performing other team leaders, Mariama surprised her friends by marrying and returning home. Multiply Mariama’s story by 645 and we all have much to be proud of.

Once again, thank you from AP, Sini Sanuman, and the women of Mali!

The AP team

Bamako 2017 - heading off to the soap market
Bamako 2017 - heading off to the soap market
Happy customer at the Bamako market
Happy customer at the Bamako market
34,576 bars sold and many more to come!
34,576 bars sold and many more to come!
The team leader!
The team leader!
Gao 2017 - making friends around soap
Gao 2017 - making friends around soap
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Excited about soap at Sini Sanuman's Gao center
Excited about soap at Sini Sanuman's Gao center

I am delighted to report back on this important project in Mali, which you have so kindly supported. As you may remember, our goal is to help survivors of war rape and other forms of sexual violence in Mali to recover their confidence by producing and selling soap. So far we have raised $8,734 from 96 donations through our GlobalGiving appeal. I hope in this email to show how we have used your donations this year and what lies ahead.

Deepening crisis.

I was able to visit Mali in November and was shocked at how the security situation has deteriorated in the north. This makes our soap project all the more important. Jihadists have stepped up their attacks on UN peacekeepers and the Malian security forces, and placed a bounty on all foreigners who visit the north. There is a peace process under way between the government and Tuareg, who rebelled in 2012, but this has slowed to a crawl because of serious disagreements between the Tuareg factions. Ethnic tension is rising in the center of the country between the Fulani and Bambara peoples. Unfortunately, the outlook is not good for 2018.

This deepening crisis is affecting women. As you may remember, thousands of women were raped, flogged and abused by rebels and jihadists during the conflict in 2012. Things began to quieten down in 2013, but the rising crisis in the north is bringing back memories of that terrible period.

During a recent visit to Sini Sanuman's center in Gao I met with several brave survivors of rape who tell their stories in this recent news bulletin. Mariam (not her real name) was riding on a public bus near Gao when the bus was stopped by bandits who hauled her out and gang-raped her. Another survivor, Fatimata, fled from violence in her village to Gao and found a job as domestic worker, only to be raped by the husband of her employer. I was also deeply affected by meeting Awa, who was raped in Gao and impregnated by her attacker. Awa hid for months and was ashamed even to tell her parents.

These stories underscore the acute vulnerability of women in such a crisis, particularly those who are displaced. Earlier in 2017 I interviewed three young rape victims at one of Sini Sanuman's Bamako centers, who told me how they had fled from Timbuktoo in 2012, returned home when things calmed down in 2013, and again fled back down to Bamako in 2017 when fighting again erupted. UN officials are desperately concerned that the current crisis could again lead to mass attacks on women across the north, as happened in 2012. There has already been one report of a mass flogging.

Our response.

Our Malian partner Sini Sanuman responds to this cruelty through a combination of prevention and cure, described in these pages on our website. Sini Sanuman deploys a team of 13 animators who work through community-based women's groups and reach out to marginalized women in three towns - Bamako, Bourem and Gao. Those who are particularly vulnerable are invited to spend six months at one of four centers run by Sini Sanuman.

Once at the center they receive psychosocial and medical support; a nutritious meal (3.8 million Malians are short of food); legal advice if they want to enter a legal complaint against their attackers; and training in how to make soap, embroidery and clothes. Our goal is to ensure that they leave the centers with their confidence restored and some skills that can help them earn a living. This year alone, Sini Sanuman has provided support to 210 women.

Soap lies at the heart of this program, and everything about the process is local. We buy all of our shea butter oil from a village women's cooperative. The oil is then mixed at the 4 centers under the supervision of a Malian soap-maker as shown in this video, poured into a mold until it hardens, and smoothed by hand. The soap is then packed into cartons of 16 bars and sold at local markets by the trainees, who keep 60% of what they sell.

Your donations have helped to make this an efficient and well-run little business. We used some donations to invest in new molds and build a storage shed, and this is now paying dividends. Between January and October, the four centers produced over 29,000 bars of shea and palm oil soap, which puts them on course to exceed their target of 30,000 bars this year.

Persuading someone to buy something you have made is wonderful for morale, as I was able to see during recent visits to Bamako and Gao. When I visited the center at Gao, soap-making was well under way under the watchful eye of Aissata, the professional soap trainer. The ladies had only been making soap for 4 months, but they had almost caught up with the Bamako centers, which have been open much longer.

In Bamako I accompanied a team of trainees to the local market in Bamako. They moved with confidence down the darkened alleyways between the stalls and seemed to sniff out the traders who were most likely to buy their soap! (photo) The seven cartons quickly disappeared within 30 minutes. This was the second time I had accompanied trainees to the market and on both occasions I felt their sense of achievement as described in this news bulletin from last year. Whether or not they can ever "recover" from an ordeal like rape, soap certainly helps them to regain their confidence. And young women like Mariam, who lead this group of trainees into the market, emerge as leaders.

Soap also brings in a serious income. Mariam - who fled from the north earlier in the year - earns over 1,000 francs ($1.8) a day from soap sales and is the only breadwinner in her family. I spoke to many other beneficiaries who depend on soap for their livelihood. The amount is usually small, but it goes a long way in Mali.

Looking ahead.

So far our soap project has been a resounding success. We now have to make sure it continues and grows. This could be difficult in the short term. The program has been funded by the foreign ministries of Germany and Liechtenstein but German funding will end on December 31. As you can imagine, we are scrambling to find new donors! UNICEF is interested, but will not commit before the summer. Your donations could help bridge the gap. We still have over $5,000 in our GlobalGiving kitty - enough to cover the cost of ingredients through to June. And of course, every dollar counts.

We have also been trying to ensure that trainees like Mariam continue to use their soap-making skills once their training ends. UNICEF has donated over 200 soap molds but it will be hard for trainees to use these on their own, or find the money to pay for soap ingredients like oil. Soap-making needs to be done in a group! The best solution would be to open more centers in the community, and Sini Sanuman is exploring this option.

Of course such challenges would vanish if the soap project paid for itself, but this is some way off. By selling 40,000 bars of soap this year, the trainees would generate about $5,000 for the program - well short of the $50,000 needed to run the four centers over the next six months.

But it will certainly help. Indeed, the money raised through GlobalGiving and the income from soap sales will inject over $10,000 into the soap program next year and still pay trainees. This would have been inconceivable just trwo years ago. I hope you agree! Now we just need to keep up the momentum going into 2018.

Thank you, once again, for your generosity. We wish you a very happy holiday and wonderful new year.

Iain and the AP team

Each carton of soap holds 16 bars and sells for $4
Each carton of soap holds 16 bars and sells for $4
Mariam prepares her trainees for the soap market
Mariam prepares her trainees for the soap market
Now we can relax! Mariam after a successful sale
Now we can relax! Mariam after a successful sale
Strong women: at the Gao center for rape survivors
Strong women: at the Gao center for rape survivors
Mariam at the market: This soap is a real bargain!
Mariam at the market: This soap is a real bargain!
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Making soap at the second center in Bamako
Making soap at the second center in Bamako

This report does not use real names

This update brings you the latest news from our soap program in Mali, which you have so kindly supported. There is, as usual, much to report.

As you may remember, the program helps survivors of armed sexual violence in Mali to regain their confidence by producing and selling soap. I visited Mali recently to evaluate the program and found a different context from earlier visits. The political and military crisis in the north has worsened this year. But this only makes the soap program more important, and its achievements more impressive. We are very proud of this program, and you can be too.

The political context

First, on the political and military context. As is well known, the crisis erupted in 2012, when Tuareg rebels linked up with jihadists across the north and imposed a reign of terror on civilians, especially women. The French intervened and suppressed the rebellion, but any sense of complacency has long since disappeared as the main jihadists groups have joined forces and launched a string of deadly attacks this year. The UN peace-keeping force MINUSMA has taken more casualties than any other mission in the world.

This background helps to put our program – and your donations – into context. First and most obviously, the crisis in the north makes it more important than ever to protect women and counter the misogynistic ideology of the jihadists. With this in mind, our Malian partner Sini Sanuman has opened two more centers for women this year and expects to take in 210 survivors in 2017.

One of the new centers is in Bamako, and caters to women like those seen in the photos below, several of whom fled from new fighting in northern town of Timbuktoo earlier this year. The other new center is in the north itself in Gao, which has become a gathering point for traffickers and migrants seeking to reach Libya and cross the Mediterranean. In short, this program is at the very heart of the crisis.

Program support

The current insecurity has not yet translated into the sort of mass sexual abuse against women that shocked Malians in 2012, but it has once again forced women into flight, poverty and despair. Sini Sanuman’s response is to send out animators into the community to identify those who are most vulnerable. Animators held no fewer than 1,112 meetings in the first six months of this year and reached thousands of women.

Of these, 120 women were invited to enroll at one of the four program centers. During their 6-month stay, beneficiaries have access to a psychologist and receive one cooked meal a day – a key form of support at a time when malnutrition is rising across the country. They also receive medical and legal assistance if needed.

The centerpiece of this program is training. Sini Sanuman offers three types of training, in soap, embroidery and tailoring. Our goal is to teach skills and help the women earn some money, while restoring their confidence. Soap is particularly important because it is easy to make and will always find a market. In addition to trainees, our program also provides an income the 40 village women who produce soap oil for the centers. (photo below)

The soap project made great strides last year. Using your donations and money raised by our 2016 Peace Fellow Rose, we bought new soap molds and a storage shed. This improved quality and productivity. Sini Sanuman also introduced new record-keeping. The program produced 27,258 bars of soap last year and all were sold.

This has continued in 2017. By July 2 the centers had produced and sold 16,452 bars of soap and are on track to exceed their target of 30,000 bars. The trainees are also benefitting more. They work in teams to sell soap in the local markets and keep 60% of what they sell. The rest goes into a separate bank account (named after our soap brand Sini Savon). By the end of June, the trainees had shared $2,050 in profits.

Added to this is the confidence gained by the trainees, as described in this news bulletin last year. Indeed, the team leader featured in the bulletin has since got married and moved back to the north full of optimism. That is what this program is all about.

Looking ahead

With the soap-making project now firmly grounded it is time to look ahead. One of our goals for this year is to take the soap-training out into the community, where it can benefit more women. We also hope to make it possible for trainees to continue using their new skills after their training ends. With this in mind, we have invested $1,000 and provided training for the 40-member Moussou Kalanso cooperative in Bamako, which produces soap. In return, the cooperative has recruited five former trainees from the Sini Sanuman centers. They include Fatimata, seen in the photo below.

I met Fatimata and the others in Bamako and was impressed. As we explain in this news bulletin, they earned $648 in the first four months of this year and put half aside for future soap investments. As Fatimata said to me: “It doesn’t matter how small the amount, this income is important.” They take nothing for granted and are grateful for everything.

This encouraging development points to the long-term strategy, which is to turn the soap-making project into a self-sustaining business. Sini Sanuman’s main funder, the German Foreign Ministry, will end support at the end of this year (as stipulated in the 2014 agreement). We are confident of finding new donors, but this is another argument for self-sufficiency in those activities, like soap-making, which are producing a serious income for trainees. This will mean doubling soap production next year to at least 60,000 bars.

We think it can be done. Your donations will certainly help, by allowing us to make important strategic investments. In the meantime, we can take pride in the fact that Sini Savon has restored hope to 540 seriously abused women since 2014. Our goal now is to see that it becomes a household name with consumers!

Let me end by sending best wishes to Luigi, our intrepid friend at the World Bank who helped to launch this appeal by climbing Mount Denali last year. Luigi has just embarked on a 6-month assignment with the UN in Sudan. We will be thinking of him.

Thank you!

Iain and your friends at Sini Sanuman and AP

Aisha, left, makes soap at the Moussou cooperative
Aisha, left, makes soap at the Moussou cooperative
Lunch is a must at a time of malnutrition in Mali
Lunch is a must at a time of malnutrition in Mali
Making soap oil at the Ane cooperative
Making soap oil at the Ane cooperative
Sini Sanuman beneficiary - displaced by war
Sini Sanuman beneficiary - displaced by war
Hard at work making soap in Bamako
Hard at work making soap in Bamako
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Aissata, right, heads soap training in Mali
Aissata, right, heads soap training in Mali

This is the fifth time we have reported back on our soap program in Mali, which helps 60 survivors of armed sexual violence to produce and sell soap. As you will see, the program is exceeding all expectations.

As we have explained in earlier reports, the program is managed by our Malian partner Sini Sanuman (“Healthy Tomorrow”) and has several innovative features. Sini Sanuman runs three centers in north and south Mali, where SGBV survivors receive six months of emergency support (nutritional, psychosocial, medical, judicial).

Also in the centers, several professionals train the women in how to make soap, clothes and embroidery. Trainers like Aissata, pictured above, are the heart and soul of the program. Aissata has been making soap much of her life and she loaned her own molds to the project in 2014 to get things started. We have recorded her great work in this video.

Every one of the women she has trained has reason to be grateful to Aissata. As we have explained in previous reports and bulletins, SGBV survivors gain enormously in confidence by being able to make and sell their own products.

Our appeal on behalf of the soap-makers was launched early in 2016 with help from our friend Luigi from The World Bank, who dedicated his climb of Mount Denali to the soap makers of Sini Sanuman. Thus far we have generated $8,300 from over 70 donors like yourself, which puts us well on the way to our target of $15,000. Rose, who served as a Peace Fellow at Sini Sanuman in 2016, raised another $1,000. We are also grateful to friends in the US like Rachael, who takes time away from her studies to sell Sini Savon at the farmer's market in Washington. (Photo).

Beneficiaries

The money raised so far has gone a very long way in Mali. While our original goal was to support 60 women, your donations have helped to build a small women’s business (Sini Savon) which has benefitted almost 300 women. Of these, 210 survivors were trained at Sini Sanuman’s two centers. Another 40 village women produce shea butter (beurre de kerite), which is used in making soap at the centers. (Photo). Finally, your donations have enabled us to invest $1,000 in the Moussou Kalanso women’s group in Bamako, which brings together 35 women every week to make soap. (Photo).

The number of beneficiaries will grow steadily through 2017 because Sini Sanuman hopes to open a fourth center in the northern town of Gao, which has the largest number of undeclared SGBV survivors in the country. Indeed, by the end of this year, the project will be benefiing almost 400 women. Aissata the trainer will have trained over two thirds of them – an amazing personal legacy.

Earnings have also risen steadily. The trainees have produced over 33,000 bars of soap since January last year, and under our agreement with Sini Sanuman they keep 60% of the profit. (The rest is invested in the cooperative). In 2016 the women earned $1,465 from selling soap. So far this year they have earned around $600. The amount will rise throughout the rest of the year as productivity increases.

Equally important, the management of the project is becoming steadily more professional. Starting in June last year, Aissata the trainer has kept meticulous records. Aissata is one of two signatories on the Sini Savon bank account and takes the final decisions on how money will be invested.

Looking ahead

While this is encouraging for a project that only started a year ago, we are a long way from generating a real income for the soap-makers. For this to happen, the program will have to dramatically increase production. This will not be easy because a new group of trainees will enter the program on July 1, in need of training.

We also need to make sure that the trainees continue to use their skills after their training ends. The Moussou Kalanso group may offer a solution. We have invested in the group on the condition that they employ five of Sini Sanuman's former trainees, which they are happy to do. The potential for such partnerships is enormous because Sini Sanuman works with over 200 community-based women’s associations like Moussou Kalanso. If more groups could be brought into the soap progrem, we could have more than 1,000 beneficiaries by the end of 2018.

Can the soap-makers ever be completely self-sufficient? To achieve that, Aissata and her trainees would have to sell enough soap to pay for ingredients, rent, and salaries – which is at least two years off. Complete self-sufficiency might also require Sini Sanuman to change from a humanitarian organization to a for-profit business model, which would be unfortunate and inappropriate.

As a result, we expect that the program will grow steadily and that your donations will continue to be needed well into next year and beyond, so as to complement the efforts of these remarkable women. We look forward to reporting on their progress.

With our thanks and deep appreciation.

The AP team

Dirty business: making shea butter for soap
Dirty business: making shea butter for soap
Cutting soap blocks at the Moussou Kalanso coop
Cutting soap blocks at the Moussou Kalanso coop
In the bag: getting the soap ready for sale
In the bag: getting the soap ready for sale
Trainees sell soap in the Bamako market
Trainees sell soap in the Bamako market
Rachael and friend sell the soap in Washington
Rachael and friend sell the soap in Washington
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Program beneficiaries selling their soap at market
Program beneficiaries selling their soap at market

Fourth report from the soap-makers of Mali

This is the fourth time we have reported on our program in Mali, which helps 60 survivors of armed sexual violence to produce and sell soap.

The good news is that our original appeal has been fully funded! Eighty-three donors have given $7,660, which exceeds our goal ($7,500). Thank you!

The question is – whether to extend the appeal. After much discussion with our Malian partner, Sini Sanuman, we have decided to raise the target to $15,000. We realize that you did not donate with this in mind and hope you will not object to receiving reports about this exciting program that you have helped to launch.

So why have we taken this decision – and how have your donations been spent? Our program supports two centers, in Bamako and Bourem, where rape survivors are trained to make soap, school uniforms, and embroidery. This builds their confidence, teaches them useful new skills and also brings in an income. Our estimate is that 8,447 Malian women and their families have benefitted from training since 2014. Over 10,000 women have learned how to reduce their exposure to sexual violence at outreach sessions organized by the program.

Soap has played a key part in this, as I was able to observe during an evaluation mission in October. I watched a group of beneficiaries from our center in Bamako sell their soap in a local market (Photo). They were led by Aissata, who lost her parents in 2012. Aissata cries when she is left alone but the training has also given her confidence and turned her into a leader. She and her group kept 60% of whatever they sold at the market and deposited the rest in a soap account (Sini Savon) to be invested in the future.

Trainees like Aissata (not her real name) produced 27,258 bars of soap in 2016, exceeding our target of 25,000 bars. The program was also strengthened by several careful investments that were made possible through your donations. These included new soap molds, a storage shed, new packaging, and scent, The program also began keeping detailed records showing the amount of soap produced and sold. Improvements like these have impressed our other donors. Many were suggested by our Peace Fellow Rose Twagirumukiza, who we introduced to you in an earlier report.

We have exciting plans for 2017 which can be summed as follows - scale up and sustain. Demand for the training has proved so great that Sini Sanuman will open two more centers this year, in Bamako and the northern town of Gao. The government of Germany has pledged funding and the Malian Ambassador in Washington is delighted to see a major investment in the highly strategic, but insecure, north of the country. We will offer soap training not just in the four centers but also in the community, through women’s groups like Moussou Kalanso (photo) which has offered membership to several former program beneficiaries. This means that they will continue to make and sell soap after they leave our centers, building on the skills they have learned.

And of course our work in Mali will continue to inspire our activities here in the US. We hope to deploy another graduate student from a US university to serve as a Peace Fellow at Sini Sanuman and experience first-hand what it means to work on the front lines for women’s rights in Mali.

Finally, we will continue to promote the program through American friends like Merry May from New Jersey (photo), who has assembled a brilliant camel quilt from Malian embroidery, and students like Rachael Hughen (photo) who has sold Malian soap at George Washington University. Merry and Rachael understand - like you - that the right kind of investment will be put to very good use by these remarkable women.

We will continue to keep you informed and would welcome your feedback! Thank you again!

Soap-making at the Moussou Kalanso women's group
Soap-making at the Moussou Kalanso women's group
Merry May assembled the first Malian Camel Quilt
Merry May assembled the first Malian Camel Quilt
Rachael sells Malian soap at her US University
Rachael sells Malian soap at her US University

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The Advocacy Project

Location: Washington, DC - USA
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Twitter: @AdvocacyProject
Project Leader:
Iain Guest
Washington, DC United States
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