The Inclusive Education Project : The project closure and evaluation report
1. Introduction & Background
The Teacher Foundation (TTF) strives to infuse the school education system in India and the sub-continent with new energy, enthusiasm and expertise. In the past 15 years it has worked in significant ways with over 62,000 teachers from across the country. TTF's clientèle includes leading international schools, private schools and government schools. TTF provides sustained professional development programs, school-based support for teachers, school heads and teacher-educators; and customized educational consultancy services in the areas of school audit, development and improvement.
Project Implementation :
We commenced the project with a baseline observation of 30% teachers. We observed the teachers using a checklist - Classroom Observation Checklist which focusedon 4 main domains - Teacher Student Interaction; Physical Environment; Teaching Learning Methodology and Assessment. All 120teachers have been trained from the two districts on all the 5 modules. Also we have completed the baseline observation (Before training), first round of School Support (in-school support, after first 3 days of training modules)& End-line observation (in-school support, after final 2 days of training modules).
We selected randomly 30% of trained teachers to understand the impact of teacher trainings and classroom support. The data was gathered through Classroom Observation checklist to record the teacher's lesson transaction across four main domains; Teacher-student interaction, Physical Classroom environment, Teaching-learning methodology and Assessment.
The impact observed has been discussed with the help of graphs:
a) Teacher -Student Interaction
Indicators used in teacher-student interaction domain:
1. When the teacher speaks to individual students, she addresses them by name.
2. Walked around the classroom to check individual students' work.
3. Showed patience and empathy when addressing students.
4. Did not use abusive or insulting language, tone or behavior.
5. Did not use labels while addressing the students in the classroom specially for students with disabilities.
6. Established and maintained eye contact with the class.
7. Teacher ensured the class was designed to maintain high levels of student engagement.
8. Responded to all child-initiated questions.
9. Maintained order by ensuring the students were engaged in their task.
10. Behavioural expectations were clear.
11. Students asked the teacher or their peers for clarification about the task rather than becoming disengaged.
12. Any children with disabilities asked the teacher or their peers for clarification rather than becoming disengaged
This domain assessed the process in place for effective teacher-student interaction during the course of lesson transaction. Teachers tried to make the classroom more inclusive by showing empathy and patience towards all children and provided them with opportunities to discuss & collaborate during group-work activities irrespective of their gender and disability. Teacherssupported the children having disability by personalizing instructions and assessment as well. The graph indicates that there has been a steady improvement in the teacher-student interaction which makes classroom environment more inclusive in terms of student engagement in learning process.
b) Physical Classroom Environment
Indicators used in Physical Classroom Environment :
1. Writing on the board was clear and visible to all students.
2. Teacher used black/white/bulletin board in an organized fashion.
3. Sequence and plan of the lesson is visible from the board work.
4. Teacher used BB/bulletin board interactively (collating students responses as well as invites students to write on BB).
5. Student work is displayed.
6. Classroom space is set up to facilitate individual, pair and group activities.
7. Any images etc. on BB/bulletin board include boys as well as girls.
8. Any images etc. on BB/bulletin board provide equally positive role models of girls as well as boys (i.e. girls are not always in passive roles).
9. Any images etc. on BB/bulletin board include children with disabilities as well as non-disabled children.
10. Any images etc. on BB/bulletin board provide equally positive role models of children with disabilities as well as non-disabled children (i.e. children with disabilities are not always in passive roles).
11. Girls and boys are distributed equally across the room from front to back (i.e. to avoid the girls being mostly at the back, the boys at the front).
12. Students with disabilities are seated along with the students without disabilities.
In this domain, we observed how effectively teachers used the blackboard during the lesson transaction. It is evident from the graph that our teachers are making use of the blackboard in a more interactive manner to teach and assess student learning during the class. Also, it signifies the improvisationin using available classroom space and teaching-learning resources which caters to the learning of children with and without disabilities thus ensuring the classroom is more inclusive.
c) Teaching-Learning Methodology
c) Indicators used in Teaching-Learning Methodology domain:
1. Focused on student understanding.
2. Presented content which is factually correct in all respects.
3. Gave instructions in simple steps (can include routine instructions such as open your books, go to page number ___ OR specific task-related instructions).
4. Gave instructions in multiple ways to enable the students with disability accomplish the task. (It can include routine instructions such as open your books, go to page number ___ OR specific task-related instructions).
5. Used visual aids or manipulatives (blackboard, charts, flash cards, other displays) to reinforce the concept.
6. Teacher gave opportunities for students to periodically clear their doubts.
7. The teacher enhances student understanding by connecting the lesson to the children's environment, experiences and/or previous knowledge.
8. The teachers ensures there is differentiated instruction to accommodate students with disabilities.
9. Teacher built in time for students to discuss concepts and processes (student feedback).
10. Ensured students interact with each other to accomplish the task.
11. Presented a relaxed stance after questions were asked and gave wait time for students to respond.
12. Completed the lesson within the given time, bringing to a logical conclusion.
13. Students Asked relevant content related questions.
14. After instructions were provided, students behaved in a way that showed that they listened to and understood the instructions.
15. Answered teacher’s questions correctly.
This domain focused on observation of lesson with respect to teaching-learning methodology. The graph indicates significant increase in the use of inclusive approach by our teachersthrough personalised support by adapting current curriculum to inclusive learning context without diluting the lesson objectives and the prescribed content during teaching and assessments as compare to initial baseline observation. Most of the teachers were using learnings aids such as magnifying glasses, large print text books, and TLM/Maths kits which has been provided by Sarva Shika Abhiyan, Dept. of Education, Govt. of Karnataka through Inclusive Education Resources Centers.
Indicators used in Assessment
1. Accepted all student responses including the ‘wrong ones’ with encouraging feedback.
2. Used in-class questioning or homework assignments as strategies to improve student understanding and not merely as a means to get students to repeat facts.
3. Addressed questions to individual students as well as the group at large.
4. Revised or recapitulated, highlighting the main points of the lesson.
5. Addressed questions equally to girls and boys ( ie girl/boy ration in the class).
6. Were comfortable in responding to the teacher’s assessments.
7. Responses were appropriate to the question that the teacher posed.
The last domain focused on student's assessment during and at the end of each class. The graph indicates the change in the approach of assessing student's learning. Teachers are now using inclusive approach Attachments: