Project #6539

Alternative Livelihoods & Elephant Rescue Thailand

by Global Vision International Charitable Trust

After 2 years of GVI Thailand working with the community on bringing rescued elephants back to the forest and developing alternate livelihoods, the community of Huay Pakoot has registered as a community conservation group with the Mae Chaem District Office.

This legal registration as a community conservation group is a big step forward in allowing the village of Huay Pakoot to work towards their own goals of bringing elephants out of tourist camps and back into the forest where the elephants can live a more natural existence.  The conservation group is made up of 10 local representatives on the board of directors and allows anyone from the local village to become a member of the group.  The community’s conservations group will raise money from charitable donations, selling of products and other local ventures in order to cover the costs of bringing elephants and their mahouts back to live in the community forest, providing a salary for the mahouts as a means of making a living in a way that allows the elephants to live a more natural existence in the surrounding community forest.  These elephants will be free from the harsh conditions and intense work environment of elephant tourist camps and have freedom to roam in the forest and forage for food.  The conservation group will look after the health of the elephants and see that they have enough food and adequate medical attention and health checks.  The group will oversee tourism in the village and allow tourists to visit the elephants in the forests to see them in their natural habitat and learn about Karen elephant keeping traditions.  Elephant riding and circus tricks will not be allowed.  This type of “community based tourism” is quickly becoming a popular catch phrase in Thailand as more and more traditional communities are finding ways to bring income and tourism into their communities while still maintaining and respecting their unique culture and tradition. 

The legal formation for Huay Pakoot’s community conservation group is a great move towards allowing the community to take responsibility for the work in increasing their elephant herds living a natural life in the forests and decreasing the elephants and mahouts forced to rely on area tourist camps.  The conservation group puts the responsibility into the hands of the local people allowing GVI Thailand, volunteers and staff to continue to support these initiatives that span the realms of wildlife conservation, community development and community based tourism.

Taking the bananas to the elephants
Taking the bananas to the elephants

Jacqueline Lee is an InTheField Traveler with GlobalGiving who is visiting our partners’ projects throughout Southeast Asia. Her “Postcard” from the visit in Thailand:

Hiking over hills and deep into the forest, we came across 3 adults and 1 baby elephant. I was able to spend a day with Global Vision International staff and volunteers getting to know the elephant herd they have sponsored and supported back into the elephants’ native habitat. This also includes the mahouts’ (elephant caretakers) return to their local villages.

My trip started with a project orientation including everything from safety, to risk, and even about the culture of Thailand and the local Karen group. The next morning we were off to the village of Huay Pakoot outside of Mae Chaem led by staff member and elephant-specialist, Kylie. On the way we stopped to pick up loads of bananas as treats for the elephants. These bananas serve as a way for new volunteers to get to know their specific elephant that they will be observing and documenting during their time in the village.

The elephants we got to know were Mana, Tong Dee, Boon Jon, and Song Kran along with their mahouts (the other member of the herd, Bpee Mai, was off to receive mahout command training which is a part of local tradition and culture). One of the mahouts had been caring for his elephant for 50 years. Getting to know the staff, I learned that one was an elephant specialist, helping collect the data on the elephant behaviors. Another staff and volunteer were in veterinary school, and the rest of the volunteers were passionate about animals and conservation. Staff are not only gathering data about elephant behavior from volunteers, they also are studying the various types of plants the elephants eat, what traditional plant medicines the elephants take in the forest, and how they relate to each other. This team hopes to provide new data and research on these Asian elephants never gathered before.

While there, the local community was so supportive providing homestays and a traditional “Dee Joo” welcoming ceremony. The community and mahouts drive the projects activities. Because of this project, not only were the health and well-being of the elephants supported, they were able to stop working in stressful and harmful tourism and street begging activities, return back to their forests, and the mahouts were able to return to their homes and still make an income for the family. GVI is creating an eco-tourism model to be replicated that shows villages and elephants do not have to be involved in harmful, invasive tourism, but can be integrative, collaborative, and mutually beneficial.

GVI is hoping to expand the number of elephants reintegrated back to the local habitat.

a mahout and his elephants
a mahout and his elephants
Feeding Mana her bananas
Feeding Mana her bananas


Although highly endangered, many Asia elephants live out their lives working in tourist camps: giving rides and performing in circus shows. Generally the management strategies of these camps are structured to provide maximum enjoyment for tourists thus maximizing profit, but this does not typically bode well for the elephants working there. On our Thai Elephant project, we are helping a traditional elephant-keeping community return their elephants to live in the forest, where they can socialise naturally and forage on native plants. We are happy to celebrate the 2nd birthday of one of these lucky elephants, Song Kran. 

Song Kran’s mother, Boon Jan, was working in tourism before she became pregnant. Her owner is from the traditional elephant-keeping community of Huay Pakoot, and, understanding the importance of a varied diet and social bonding for elephants, he brought Boon Jan away from work to live in the forest while she came to term. Song Kran was born in the forests surrounding their village - and has never left. There is much to celebrate with Song Kran turning 2 years old on 13 April 2012. Song Kran embodies the objectives of this project, to allow captive elephants to live naturally in the forest. As the project continues to prove its effectiveness, we look forward to a long life for Song Kran free from ever stepping foot inside a working camp. 

It is extremely difficult to raise healthy infant elephants in captivity. An elephant’s gestation period is 22 months and a newborn calf must nurse for up to 4 years. In the wild, Asian elephants form highly sophisticated social groups and exhibit allomothering – which means a mother relies on support from other adult females in raising her calf. Today in a typical tourism facility, Asian elephants are not allowed to form social bonds, naturally raise their young, or choose what they eat – with detrimental consequences to their ability to raise healthy and happy calves.

Our Thai elephant project aims to impact the management of Thailand’s highly accessible yet still endangered population of 3000 captive elephants, by empowering an indigenous community to keep their elephants in the forest and care for them with traditional and more natural methods. This project has been documenting the social and foraging behaviour of elephants allowed to roam in the forest since July 2010, and continues to seek new alternatives to increase the odds of survival for the Asian elephant.

Last week saw a particularly stunningly hike with the elephants into the forests surrounding Huay Pakoot village. In one of the first hikes through the corn fields after the slash and burn land management fires have been passed through and it allowed us a dramatically different view from what we had been hiking through only weeks before. What was once tall corn laden stalks dwarfing the valley below was now flat, blackened earth, still smoking from the fires, the charred soil ready to regenerate and spring into life with new planting. The hike was looking good from the first few steps. Following the elephants through the fields we were joined by a talkative group of excited villagers eager to explain that they were off to catch fish that are in abundance at the moment in a nearby stream.

Following the elephants further into the forest, the groups were all in fantastic spirits and when the elephants took off with speed down past the cliff face, the group needed no encouragement to trek after them to see what they were in such a hurry to get to. It was a beautiful sight as the forest path gave way to an open jungle-esque meadow that could have been a scene right from the jungle book. A beautiful lush green field surrounded by living walls of hanging ferns, vines and vibrant flowers. The elephants wasted no time. Using our perfect vantage point over this utopian elephant stage to sit and relax, observing our giant friends, content that thanks to our project, they were happy in their true home. The Community of Huay Pakoot is in the final stages of registering their elephant rescue committee with the local government, and shortly after this is complete, more elephants will be freed from working camps. 

Baby elephant
Baby elephant

Everyone at GVI is proud to announce that Mana gave birth to a beautiful baby boy around 3pm Saturday, January 28th.  After months of waiting for the baby to arrive we are all very excited to welcome a 6th elephant to our herd. 

Since Sunday volunteers have been monitoring Mana and her baby nearly around the clock and recording both quantitative social behaviours and qualitative observations.  Everyone has been working very hard and we are all a bit sleep deprived, but it has been worth it.  Mana was tired and weak after the birth, and on Sunday she was not eating and was not nursing her baby properly.  However, the mahouts told us that the baby had been nursed by Boon Jan, another female in our herd with a 2 year old baby of her own.  This is a great example of allomothering and it is great to see the other elephants in the GVI herd accepting and taking care of the new arrival.  Thong Dee has also been very attentive to both the baby and Mana.  As an experienced mother Thong Dee appears to be offering support to Mana, and the new baby is already socializing with Thong Dee, touching her and trying to suck from her nipples. 

The newest member of our herd has not been named yet, and it’s customary in Karen culture to wait some time after birth before naming them.

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Organization Information

Global Vision International Charitable Trust

Location: Exeter, Devon - United Kingdom
Website: http:/​/​
Project Leader:
Kate Robey
Exeter, Devon United Kingdom