Jitendra Kumar Dhyani was a 29 year old forest guard in Corbett Tiger Reserve, Uttarakhand, India. He was on regular patrol duty in the Kalagarh lake area in July this year, when he missed his footing and drowned. Married, with a two year old daughter, Jitendra was a sole earning member of the family. The relief of Rs. 1,00,000 provided to his wife, 22-year-old Rani, has help reduced to some extent the stress and pain the bereaved family is going through. Rani has also been given a job in the Forest Department on compassionate grounds. She has now stepped out of the confines of her house and is shouldering the responsibility of raising her daughter.
Reports like this are not uncommon. Forest guards accept situations like animal attacks, accidents, and poacher attacks as occupational hazards. Stoics though they are, the constant worry about the fate of their family proves to be a dissuading factor when faced with situations when quick and potentially life-threatening decisions have to be made. The knowledge that their families will not be left helpless in the event of their death gives these brave men and women a greater sense of security when going about their duties to protect India's wildlife.
“I was walking back to the field camp, when a tiger decided to take the same path as me. It looked me straight in the eye and kept moving in my direction. Needless to say, the sight of the 120-odd kg weighing carnivore making a beeline towards us was enough to make me quite nervous. Muttering Bhagwan bharose (in God I trust) to myself, I kept my stride steady and tried not to show any fear. The tiger came close... and then just trotted off into the bushes,” Leelabai reminisced. Smiling, more at my dazed expression than anything else, she said, “The tiger must have seen the uniform and understood that it’s the malik (owner) out for a walk.”
Leelabai is not a celebrated ‘wildlifer’ or photographer, nor has she published any research papers or been a part of any conglomeration of conservationists. She has spent the last nineteen years of her life living in the forest, armed with nothing but a stick and sheer raw pluck and courage, guarding the forest as part of the forest department. Our paths would probably never have crossed had IFAW-WTI not conducted a Crime Prevention Training for the frontline forest staff at Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh.
Fondly called amma (mother) by her colleagues, including many officers, Leelabai will be turning 60 this December and it’ll be time for her to retire from the forest department. Looking at this brazen lady, all of us from WTI were more than just curious about her life as a forest guard, a position which in this day and age is still, unfortunately, male-dominated. Being my usual inquisitive self, I started my onslaught of questions.
What made you join the department? ... I got this job as a forest guard in 1985, after my husband was killed by some poachers. I was left all alone with four children- two boys and two girls. The department offered me the job as a means to make ends meet and I decided to take it up.
What’s your daily routine like? ... We go patrolling, at least around 10 km every day inside the forest. There isn’t an animal that we don’t come across... whether it is a tiger or a gaur, we see them all! What do you think about the tiger? ... Oh... what do I think? (Laughs) You tell me what I should be thinking about when a majestic animal like the tiger crosses my path! Simply put, it’s the pride of our forests. After all, you’re sitting in the land of the tiger and people come from all across the world to see a tiger here! So yes, I feel very proud about our tigers. Why do you think we should save the tigers? ... Well, there are a lot of big reasons as I’m sure you already know but keeping those aside for the moment, honestly, the tiger gives us a lot of employment. It’s responsible for all the tourists coming to our small town who stay in the hotels, hire vehicles and visit the park. All these things just mean more jobs and services we can get paid for.
(Bowled over by the frankness of her answers and her matter of fact tone, I persisted in my quest to know more about this fascinating lady) But other than just income, why should we save the tigers? ... The tiger is the top animal in the forest, is it not? When we save the tiger, we save other animals and the entire forest itself! If we want the future generations to see these magnificent creatures, then the burden is on us to save them. I know I want my grandchildren to see tigers in the forest; they are the pride of our nation! Where else can you see tigers in the wild like you do here? The whole world comes to my jungles to see them! Have you ever caught a poacher yourself? ... What do you think, kid? That I’ve been in this position for so long but haven’t done anything? As a forest guard, I’ve been part of quite a few seizures and seen them detaining a lot of suspects. Once, in fact, during my patrolling with two casual workers we came across a father-son duo, who were jungle fowl hunters who were setting traps in the forest. As soon as they saw us they tried to run away but we caught them easily. I gave two tight slaps to the kid and asked him why he’s spoiling his life by getting into this murky business and leading a life of crime. We went back, collected all the traps and handed them to the senior officials later. So many incidents like these have happened; it’s hard for me to recall all of them. It’s all a normal part of our life here.
So what would you want to say to the new generation of forest guards? ... I would just say that I have done what I could do and the onus is now on them to continue saving our forests from the poachers and the thieves. And make sure that you experience the magic of the forest, when you walk in it every day. Only then will you fall in love with it and there is no returning from that kind of intense, ethereal love. Got any plans for your post-retirement life? ... I haven’t given it much thought so nothing as such as of now. What I do know is that after nineteen long years, I’m finally going to take a break and spend some time with my grandchildren. But I know that I’m going to miss the forests.
Leelabai sat and talked with us for another 10-15 minutes. She told me she quite liked the training, especially the way it was conducted. It was the first time she had seen a tiger trap, during the mock field exercise and was very upset by the fact that a tiger can be killed using such simple equipment. She did wistfully say that she wanted to do more as a forest guard but that it was time for the youngsters to come and take over from her now. Leelabai ventured on to the topics that had been covered in the previous day’s training and how everyone had sat and discussed them at the end of the day. Smiling reassuringly at me, she was confident that trainings like these will help the forest staff to learn more and help perform their duties better. “You should conduct regular refresher trainings, since we rarely get such opportunities. But it sure is good to see senior officials taking care of capacity building issues,” Leelabai added.
With that last statement, she quietly got up and went to attend the rest of the workshop, leaving me to sit there alone with multiple thoughts reeling in my head after this conversation. Leelabai is symbolic of those hundreds of unknown and unheard of ‘glorified’ protectors of our forests and the wildlife in them. It’s not just a job for them but literally living in the middle of the jungles, they risk their lives every day for the cause. It’s not an easy life, patrolling for kilometres on end, living in minimalist field camps to survive, braving the harsh varying Indian weather all year round, battling against all odds to act as the first line of defence for our wildlife. Leelabai will probably never get a lifetime achievement award or actually be recognised as a conservationist by the modern capitalist and utilitarian world. Her fate, in all probability will be like that of many before her- to forever disappear into the government files as a retired forest employee, becoming nothing more than just another statistic, living on her pension as a simple retired grandparent in a small town with all her years of forest experience and wisdom kept to herself. People who will visit Kanha to see tigers will never know or understand the sacrifices made, the lives spent and the blood and the sweat shed in these very jungles to save the National Animal of India. Here’s hoping that her story and her contributions are now known to the world and will inspire more people to join forces save wildlife.
Wildlife Trust of India through a Rapid Action Project provided 85 pairs of high altitude boots in November to the patrolling staff of Dachigam National Park to equip them for the winter and snow.
Dachigam National park is located 22 km from Srinagar in the northernmost Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K). Covering an area of 141 sq. km, the park had initially been protected since 1910 by the royal family of J&K and later under Indian law by declaration as a national park in 1981. Dachigam literally means ‘ten villages’ in memory of the ten villages that were relocated for its formation.
Located among the high mountains of the mighty western Himalayas, the variation in altitude is vast, ranging from 5500 ft to 14000 ft above mean sea level. The terrain ranges from gently sloping grasslands to sharp rocky outcrops and cliffs. The park has alpine pastures, meadows, waterfalls and scrub vegetation with deep gullies running down the mountain face and most of the grasslands and meadows, except during winters, are covered with brightly coloured flowers. The park is famous for being home to the endangered Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) - the Kashmir stag that is the state animal of which only about 200 remain within Dachigam National Park, as per a survey undertaken by WTI and the J&K Department of Wildlife.
This beautiful park is protected by a dedicated band of forest staff who patrol the park on foot every day in every season keeping a watch for poachers, illegal graziers, and forest fires. Grasslands being the most vulnerable to forest fires, fire lines of more than 10 km in length and 15 feet in width are being prepared and will be maintained throughout the year.
The patrolling party, constituting the Block Officers, Beat Guards and seasonal manual labour, plays a key role in the early detection of these fires and most of the time is able to check them with minimum damage to wildlife. The tough mountain boots provided were very well received by the staff who said that it would greatly ease the discomfort associated with hiking across rocky mountain terrain.
Every year, countless animals lose their lives to snares and traps laid by poachers. Once caught in them, these silent killers condemn the animal to a slow painful death. Poachers prefer to use weapons like these rather than guns as they are cheap and quick to prepare and can be dismantled into component parts and transported without raising suspicion. Moreover, they do not draw attention to themselves as discharging a gun would do.
These snares are then planted on animal trails OUTSIDE protected areas where patrolling is minimal and chance human encounters rare. Snares have long been used to trap ungulates which are the prey species of large cats like the tiger and leopard. Depletion of prey stock results in the big cat resorting to cattle killing and bringing down upon it the wrath of villagers ready to avenge their loss. Besides this, cast iron jaw traps and large snares made of fencing wire are used by poachers to specifically trap and kill the large cats.
WTI conducts regular snare-combing walks in the fringes of protected areas. These walks involve Forest Department staff as well as local youth. Training forest guards to locate and remove traps and snares is of crucial importance, because if this rampant killing is not checked in time, India's tigers are poised to lose the race against extinction.
In April 2012, training sessions on Wildlife Crime Prevention was initiated in Manas National Park in Assam, India, to build capacity of more than 550 front line forest guards who protect this World Heritage Site. The training modules were custom designed by the WTI Guardians of the Wild team to build a knowledgeable, strong and motivated front line force to curb wildlife crime.
The course began with an overview of trends in wildlife crime in India and around the world. Subsequent topics dealt with various aspects of Indian wildlife law (Wildlife Protection Act, 1972), poaching prevention techniques, crime scene investigation, intelligence gathering, and preparation of the Preliminary Offence Report (POR). Information on procedures and techniques for collection and preservation of evidence from the crime scene was also imparted. A mock crime scene investigation was also played out as part of the field demonstration.
About 550 foot patrolling kits consisting of a backpack, winter jacket, waterproof poncho, water bottle, torch and cap were distributed to the front line forest guards. The equipment had been selected taking into consideration the terrain and weather conditions that the guards experience while patroling their beat. Six anti-poaching camps in the remote Chirang Reserve Forest were also provided with solar powered equipment for charging communication devices. With the improvement in communication between forest camps, forest guards in this area have carried out four successful operations against poachers and encroachers over the past month.
WTI’s work in Manas began in the early 2000s, with research to generate the crucial baseline data immediately after peace was restored following two decades of civil unrest. Since then, numerous initiatives have been implemented to facilitate landscape conservation through a holistic approach. In addition to advocating and garnering political will to create Greater Manas, these also include promotion of green livelihoods, awareness generation, and pioneering initiatives like the reintroduction of rhinos in Manas, rehabilitation of rare and endangered wildlife including clouded leopards, tiger, elephants, Asiatic black bears, and many other displaced animals.
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